20th Century Authors

Over time, there have been many authors in the world. People have the ability to write a book and sell it. From there it can become a bestseller and make them millionaires. Reading a book can be very interesting, it can lead your imagination to destinations that you’ve never even thought about.  Books have an impact on our lives as well, they can make you think of better ways to handle situations or better ways to live your life.

C.S. Lewis:

C.S. Lewis was a man of many talents. He worked as a novelist, poet, literary critic, essayist, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist. That’s mind boggling how many titles he has. C.S. Lewis was part of a group called The Inklings. The Inklings was a literary discussion group where authors could talk about their work and get input. This is a great system, in my opinion, because if one person is having writers block they can get help from other authors! Some of C.S. Lewis’s most well-known books are The Screwtape letters and Mere Christianity.

J.R.R. Tolkien:

His full name was John Ronald Reuel Tolkien. He lived in England. He worked as a writer, poet, and university professor at Oxford. He was also a member of the Inklings. This means that there is a chance that he and C.S. Lewis might have helped each other out with their books! His most popular books are The Hobbit as well as Lord of The Rings. According to my teacher, The Hobbit wasn’t intended to be a kid’s book but I don’t think he minds.

Agatha Christie:

She was born in 1890, in England. She was a short story writer and a play writer. She is best known for her murder mysteries especially the ones featuring Hercule Poirot as the detective. One of her plays that is very popular is The Mouse Trap. Which has been shown since the 1950s.

Albert Einstein:

He was born in 1879. He became the greatest theoretical physicist in history. He discovered the Theory of Relativity. He was visiting the U.S. in 1933, as a Jew. He chose not to go back to Germany but to become a U.S. citizen. He helped develop atomic technology. He has written many books about his discoveries one is called, The World as I See It. Another one is called, The Evolution of Physics.

 

Isaac Asimov:

Born in 1920 worked as a professor of biochemistry at Boston University. He was a prolific author. He wrote over 500 books and an estimated 90,000 essays. Most famous for his book 1984 and Animal Farm.

Ernest Hemingway:

He was born in 1899 and was raised in Illinois. He had a unique style of writing that was copied by late 20th century authors. He lived a life of adventure and had a very visible public image. Some of his most famous books are The Old Man and The Sea, The Sun Also Rises, and A Moveable Feast.

Thank you for reading my essay about 20th century writers. Come back to, Learning in Pajamas, for more from me!

 

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Why Not The Dry Cleaners?

I never actually thought about how much doing simple chore cost my family. My latest English assignment has opened my eyes to this fact. Doing the laundry at home is a major investment! You spend, depending on the brand, about 30 dollars on laundry soap. Then you spend about 10 dollars on fabric softener. Finally, you spend about 15 dollars on bleach per bottle! In total you are spending 55 dollars just for your supplies, which could last a week or two months or even more depending on how often you do laundry. Then you have to pay the water bills from washer, and you have to pay more on your electric bill from the washer and dryer. Did I mention how much the washer and dryer cost? These range from hundreds to thousands of dollars each! If these break, then you have to pay for repairs! If you don’t want to have further problems with the washer and/or dryer then you might just want to replace them.  This then adds hundreds or more on to your bill. Not only is this very expensive but it’s such a hassle! You have to sort your laundry, then you have to wait hours for it to be finished washing and drying, then you have to fold the laundry and put it away!

Going to the dry cleaners is so easier! Depending on the business you go to, you can get all of your laundry done for $2.50 per pound! If you have 30 pounds of clothes each month the total amount of money spent each year is 900 hundred dollars! This is far less than the cost of doing laundry at home.  Not only do you not spend as much money, but you also don’t have to worry about adding money to your electric and water bills. This way is so much cheaper than doing your own laundry at home.

Next time you are about to buy a washer and dryer, instead, go to the dry-cleaners. Come back to Learning in Pajamas for more from me!

 

 

Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge

Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge are the 29th and 30th presidents of the united states! Warren G. Harding, was involved in many scandals and many illegal operations. Coolidge wasn’t really interested in that so, now he is labeled as a “weak” president.

Warren G. Harding is the 29th President of the United States He was elected in 1923 and he left the office in 1923. This was the beginning of world war 1 so, Harding had to help keep the united states safe meanwhile governing the country. Harding started his career as a journalist, he worked with newspapers. In 1891, Harding’s wife wanted him to go into politics so, he did. Harding went to serve as the Ohio State Senator. This was his very first elected and political position. Harding is known as one of the worst presidents ever because there were many scandals during his presidency.

One of the very worst scandals, when Harding was president, is known as the Teapot Dome Scandal. This was when a federal Cabinet member stole government property and leased it illegally. Then after somebody bought he kept the money. This put a sore spot on Harding’s career

After these scandals, he had a stroke. The stroke didn’t kill him, but it did limit him from doing a lot of things. Going forward in time, he died of a heart-attack.

We now move on to Calvin Coolidge the 30th president.

Coolidge, Harding’s vice president at the time, was going to bed when he got the news that Harding had died. On August 2nd, 1923 Coolidge became the new president!

Calvin Coolidge was born on Independence Day! He was born in Vermont, but in order for him to get is college degree he had to move to Massachusetts. Coolidge’s planned to be a lawyer but, he didn’t have enough money to pay for Law-school. Instead of going to Law School he worked with a local law firm so that he could still to learn law. This was an option for people who didn’t have sufficient funds to go to Law School. Afterward he was admitted to the Bar for Massachusetts.

Later, Coolidge was elected Governor of Massachusetts. Soon, the Boston Police Strike of 1919 occurred. Coolidge, even though it was unnecessary, decided to help, this impressed many government officials. They were so impressed with him that they elected him as the Vice President to Warren G. Harding.

Coolidge was inaugurated by his own father! He was inaugurated again the next day. To make it not illegal they inaugurated him again out in public.

Coolidge had policies that would get rid of banks that were making the economy worse. By doing this he was allowing the stocks to go up an up and up. Eventually the investors were scared that it would plummet, they started to back off which then made the stocks fall.

Harding and Coolidge had two different ways of being a president Coolidge may be considered a weak president, but he was a very good president, even though he left his presidency just before the Great Depression, he still brought the economy to its peak before it fell.

This was an essay about President Harding and President Coolidge! Be sure to come back to Learning in Pajamas for more from me!

 

My One Paragraph Summary (8th Grade English Assignment #26)

My 1 Paragraph Summary:

A Jewish girl, named Diana Deithelm, gets captured by evil men and betrayed by her best friend all in one day. Despite it all, Diana, one random stranger, and her new best friend, Mitzi Rudolf, all travel through desperate measures to get to freedom. Avoiding an entire Nazi family, and her own family is tough but through it all Diana stays true to herself and her friends.

I hope you enjoyed reading my one paragraph summary! Be sure to check out the actual story which will be posted shortly only on Learning in Pajamas!

 

 

 

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (8th Grade History Assignment #25)

Thomas “stonewall” Jackson was born on January 21st, 1824, he passed away on May 10th, 1863. He lived a short life of 39 years. Thomas was a brave man who fought in the Mexican-American war. He also fought as a Confederate soldier in the Civil war.

Thomas was born in Virginia, which is now known as West Virginia. His mom’s name was Julia Beckwith Neale, she had four children in total, Thomas was the third born. When he was two years old his Father and his older sister, Elizabeth, died from Typhoid fever.

Typhoid fever is a rare sickness, but it is still very deadly, especially for children. Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who’s infected.

After the death of his Father, his mom re-married to a man named Blake Woodson. Thomas and his brothers did not like Blake, so they often got into arguments. These arguments caused the boys to go live with their father’s brothers. In 1831 Thomas’s mom died while giving birth to his half-brother. However, ten years later in 1841 his half-brother died from tuberculosis.

In the 1800s adults would have many children. They did this because they knew that most of their kids would die pre-maturely. The children would die because they didn’t have medicine, nor would they have hospitals that could cure their illnesses. Therefore, having more kids meant they would have a higher survival rate in their families.

Later, Thomas graduated from a U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York. Soon after his graduation he fought in the Mexican-American war. While he was in Mexico he joined the first artillery as a 2nd lieutenant. During his time in the war he met a man named Robert E. Lee. He was a General-in-chief for the Civil war.  After the war he became the president of Washington collage.

By the end of 1846 Thomas had been promoted to the rank Brevet Major and he was considered a war hero. After the war Thomas retired from the military and was offered a professorship at the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington Virginia.

Thomas married a woman named Elinor Junkin, who sadly, died giving birth. In this very unlucky circumstance she gave birth to a stillborn son. Thomas then got re-married to a woman named Mary Anna Morrison who gave birth to a baby girl. This child died not even a month after her birth.  Mary later gave birth to another girl, who they named Julia after Thomas’s mother.

While Thomas was in the Civil war he earned a nickname. His nickname was, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson. He got his nickname after part of the war. When he got his nickname, he was leaning against a stonewall and someone shouted, “Hey look it is Stonewall Jackson. The nickname stayed and grew to be what he is known as to this day.

Later in the war, Thomas, got shot in his arm. The shot was a friendly fire.  Thomas had to get his arm amputated! This shot did not kill him. He died of Pneumonia on May 10th, 1863. This may have been the day that he died, however his story lives on through our History books!

Thank you for reading Learning in Pajamas! Be sure to come back again for more posts from me!

The Holocaust (8th Grade English Assignment 24)

The Holocaust started in 1933 and it ended in 1945. During this time millions of people died. It all started because Germany’s money system was failing. Many people had very little to no money at all. The value of the money decreased so much, children would use it as toys. However, the Jewish people were still making money. This made a man named Adolf Hitler have an idea. His idea that most Jews were the reason for the depression so if Germany got rid of them they would have money again. He also said that they were communists and that they were the cause for the defeat in World War 1. This shows that Hitler did not like the Jews. Hitler created a political party, this party is formally known as the Nazis. These were thousands of men who worked with and for Hitler to abolish the Jews. Hitler was a man who hated, targeted, and killed the Jews. Adolf Hitler was born April 20th, 1889. He committed suicide on April 30th ,1945.  In my opinion suicide is the coward’s way out. As you can tell Adolf Hitler was a very bad man. What he did was terribly wrong. However, as most people say, “Learn from other’s mistakes”. That is exactly what we should do. Learn from what Hitler did and never let that happen again.

There were about 18 million Nazi soldiers in World war 1. The Nazis would murder Jewish people, they would kill Homos, people who were sick or had disabilities. The Nazis would also kill anybody who got involved with what they were doing. The Nazis killed millions of innocent people.  Nazis would put the Jewish people in a line and they would shoot and kill them. They would also put them in gas chambers and say that they were showers. They would poison them and then they would clean out the bodies. This was a scary and depressing time for both Jewish people and anybody who was alive at that time. I personally think that it still is depressing to this day.

One of the most common stories of the Jews was Anne Frank’s story. Anne Frank had a hard childhood. She was taken out of school and put into a new one that was just for the Jewish kids. They had to wear a Star of David patch on all their outfits. They could not go to the beach just because they were Jewish. They also had time limits where they were not allowed outside. Anne Frank got a diary when she turned 13 She called her diary Kitty. She wrote in it just about every day. On July 6 ,1942 Anne Frank, her sister Margot Frank, her father Otto Frank, and Anne’s mom Edith Frank went into hiding on the top floor of her father’s warehouse. This was called the Secret Annex because the doorway was hidden behind a bookshelf. Also living in the Secret Annex were Hermann and Auguste van Pels as well as their son Peter. Also, a man named Fritz Pfeffer. After two years of them living there, one of the people who was helping them told the Nazis where they were living. To this day we still are unaware of who told the Nazis where they were hiding. Luckily one of the helpers saved Anne’s diary before the Nazis could take it. Anne and her sister died in a concentration camp from Typhon fever. Her mom died from starvation. Her dad lived through and published Anne’s diary to share her story in 1947. Her story has been shared from generation to generation for 71 years.

A lot of other Jewish children had to go through similar things as Anne Frank. The childhood of Jewish kids was a very difficult. They were pulled out of their normal schools and put into schools just for Jewish kids. They also had to where the star of David on their clothes. Also, just like Anne, they couldn’t go to most public places because they were Jewish. This was a horrible time for the kids, they couldn’t go to public places, they had time restrictions for when they leave their houses, and so many were killed at the camps. At the camps, woman would cut themselves and rub the blood on their bodies to make them look younger. They would kill the older people.  Children were gassed in the gas chambers as well as the adults. One famous story, “The Boy in The Striped Pajamas”, is a true story about the Holocaust. It’s a fantastic movie and novel it explains a great deal of what was happening during the Holocaust.  This gives you a tragic story meanwhile telling you what it was like to be alive during the Holocaust.

In many cases the Jewish people would have to hide from the Nazis, some of the hiding spots they hid in were under floorboards, in cellars, and sometimes in building’s top floors. There are many other hiding spots that where they would hide. Some of the causes of why they would need to hide were because the Nazis had called for them to go to a concentration camp. Sometimes Nazis would search for them and they’d hide from them. They were at a large risk of leaving the country because they could have been found and killed. As you can tell these people were in tough situations that could cost them their own lives.

After the war was over, millions of Jewish people, Americans, and innocent people standing up for what they believed had been killed. It was a hard time for everyone to live through. There are many stories of the Holocaust, but the most well-known story is Anne Frank’s. This was a depressing time to live in and hear about.  I think we should learn from this, so we can make sure it doesn’t happen again.

Learning in Pajamas is proud to have hopefully taught you something you did not know about the Holocaust. Be sure to come back for more from me.

 

Performing Arts (8th Grade Critical Thinking Assignment#23)

There are many types of performances, these performances can impact our daily lives. There are also many places where you can see performances and be in them. Along with these we have many different type of performers. These performers can be live, on a TV show, in a movie, and many other things.

Types of performing arts:

Drama

Drama is a well-known type of performing art! This type of performance can be very entertaining! You can watch a book or even a script just come alive right on the stage. These performances can be heartwarming, sad, happy, or even funny. I have been to many plays, I have seen sad ones and I’ve seen funny ones. They can be from any type of genre.

Dance

Dance is another type of performing art. Dancing is very similar to drama. These dances, depending on the music, can be very sad, like a tragic love story, or they could be a funny “Broadway” dance. Dance can be any genre…and you don’t really have to be super flexible! There are many types of dances, for example, there is contemporary, ballroom, tap, jazz, hip hop, and many others.

Live Art

My final example of a performing art is Live art. This one is a bit tricky because it is open to interpretation. Sometimes it can be seen as weird,  however it can be a beautiful thing. When an artist draws, it usually, comes from the heart. They take what they are feeling from the inside and put it on a canvas. That is why it a beautiful thing.  There are many different types of live art. There is sculpting, animation, photography, painting, and more.  Art is everywhere in our lives, even if we don’t realize it.

From these examples, you can tell that there are a lot of performing arts. You can also tell that each performing art has multiple categories within.

There are many different performers. Some times these people perform in front of random people! In my opinion, they’ve got to be very brave to do this. It is very difficult to go out and sing or act in front of a crowd, I know this from personal experience. Some people have stage fright so back-stage they may be freaking out because they are terrified of messing up. In some cases, the person will end up going on the stage and doing terrifically!

According to my research, some notable performers who have had stage fright are:

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Megan Fox

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Amanda Seyfried

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Adele

As you can tell, even professionals sometimes have stage fright. It is a very common thing to have. Although, there are ways to reduce your stage fright.

  • You can change your focus to something else, quit scaring yourself about messing up.
  • Visualize your success. Always focus on your strength and ability to handle challenging situations.
  • Prepare your material in advance and read it aloud to hear your voice.

The world is very entertaining, you can never get bored from all the different types of performances you can go see! You might even be in one of these performances. If you are in a performance and you have stage fright, you aren’t alone! Many other performers have stage fright, even those who perform on a regular basis, and remember you can reduce the fright or even get rid of it completely!

I chose this topic because I perform in plays a lot. I also sing karaoke! I also chose this topic because I love to watch performances from all genres. I think that if I can share all about the arts more people will get interested and maybe find their passion in life. While writing this I learned about many actors and actresses who have stage fright. Also, I learned that there are many different types of performances, such as band and live art.

One more type of art is writing, so I hope you enjoyed reading this piece of art on Learning in Pajamas!

The 8 Steps On How To Write a Research Paper. (8th Grade English Assignment #21)

The eight steps to write a research paper are:

  1. Choose a topic

For this you would want to choose a topic that you know a little bit about. This way you can already have a basic understanding about your topic.

2. Research this topic

When you research a topic, first, you want to make sure your site is credible. To do this you will want to check to see if the latest update was 7 or less years ago. Then you will want to find the author’s name. While you research your paper on a credible website you will need to take notes on what you are reading.

3. Make a mind map of your notes

You will you will take your notes and create a mind map. A mind map is a diagram to visually organize your information. A mind map is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank landscape page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added.

4. Complete an outline

Once you are finished with your mind map you will then create an outline. An outline is a general description or plan giving the essential features of something. However, you don’t need to include all of the details.

5. Write a rough draft

This rough draft is important because this is where you put everything you have just done onto on piece of paper. This is not your final copy, this is where you don’t have to worry about grammar or punctuation.

6. Organize your paper

This is where you make sure your ideas fit on the paper, you will make sure everything flows together. Also, it will be to be sure that you have all of your information in the right spots.

7. Proofread and revise your paper

This is where you check for any mistakes. You’ll make sure that your punctuation is correct and that your grammar is also right. You will make sure that all of your words are spelled correctly and make sure everything makes sense.

8. Type a final copy of your paper.

This is your last time writing this. You will be sure to add punctuation and grammar and also be sure to have a good flow and have the tenses in your paper. This will allow you to have a great final copy of your paper!

This was the 8 step process of writing a research paper. See you next time for more from Learning in Pajamas.

Is Showing Strength or Showing Vulnerabilities more courageous? (8th Grade English Assignment#19)

In many movies they show super heroes showing courageousness, by being strong. However, is this the best way to show them being brave? Possibly not, showing your vulnerability is very difficult to do. This would show how brave you really are, considering how tough that is for somebody to do. This brings us to a very difficult question, is showing strength more courageous than showing your vulnerabilities?

Super heroes are known for beating up bad guys and being strong. They are being brave for standing up to the bad guys. Superman, Batman, wolverine, the hulk. These super heroes show their greatest strengths and are incredibly brave! Everyday they fight their greatest enemies and most of the time, they win. However, in real-life people in the armed forces show their strength and bravery by risking their lives to fight for our country. They are very brave for fighting; three percent of the country is willing to do that. That show strength and bravery. These are examples of how showing strength is courageous.

Many people show their vulnerabilities when they see a therapist. They show their vulnerabilities, so they can get the help they need to solve their problems. When these people go on and tell random people what their problems are they are being super brave! I think that being brave isn’t always about fighting crime, but facing your fears and telling people about your problems, that’s brave. Also, when getting shots at the doctor’s office, that’s very difficult. I always have trouble when it come to shots. When you are terrified of the dentist’s office, but you still go, that’s brave. These are all vulnerabilities that people have denied, they put their fears aside and chose to do it anyway. That is true bravery.

Both are examples of being brave. You have strength bravery and vulnerability bravery. You’ve got to have a lot of courageousness to concur your fears and you’ve got to have a lot of strength to fight for what’s right. In my opinion showing your vulnerabilities is a lot more courageous than showing your strength. With this being said, the next time you go to the dentist be brave! Be sure to come back to Learning in pajamas for more from me!

 

Should our Role-Models Be Famous Or Not? (8th Grade English Assignment #17)

Many of the modern-day celebrities and famous people from all ages, have or had children. Some of these kids end up following in their parent’s footsteps or even going a completely different path. These parents can either influence their children for better or for worse. Most of the population’s parents are not famous. However, they get good influences and bad influences just like those whose families are not famous.

In my opinion, children whose role-models are famous are not always aware that they are doing drugs or other things that they should not be doing. These people are pretty much, setting up a bad influence for those children. This will result with these kids think that drugs are cool or that smoking is cool too. However, there aqre famous people who are good influences and role-models. Even though people like Albert Einstein seem perfect, they all have their own flaws. Nobody is perfect and that’s okay! However, a lot of famous people think that they can do whatever they want to, no matter if it’s against the law or just plain rude. Therefore, they tend to be not-so-good of a role model.

People who aren’t famous, such as most parents and doctors, are also great role-models! These doctors can show kids that you can do whatever you want. That you can help people and feel good about it too. Teachers are good role-models too! They teach children and teach them all about the world and other subjects! Another good role modeling job is being a professional athlete. This is good for both girls and boys. It is showing girls that even though you are a girl you can still be strong and beat some people up. Also, for boys it shows them that with enough practice they can be built up just like these people! Professions that are good for role-modeling. I think they all are. Without the construction workers barely, anything would be built. Without scientists we wouldn’t be able to calculate all types of things with human life. Without doctors we’d all be sick, and the world would be a sickly place. Without teachers, we wouldn’t have our education systems. Think of any job, without them we wouldn’t have as strong of country as we do.

When you think about it you can tell that the occupations that we have are there for a reason. We look up to the people we see the most, but, when we think about every other job we open our minds to different ideas! We set these people as our role models. We take many famous people and make them our idols. However, the people we see every day, just doing their basic jobs, are heroes and are making this world stronger and stronger. I thank everyone for doing their jobs and helping make an amazing country! Thanks for visiting my blog! Be sure to come back to Learning in Pajamas, for more from me!